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Making Real-World Connections When Teaching Major Concepts in Inclusive Classrooms

Abstract

This article focuses on how to use a specialized graphic organizer (see figure below) to help students understand and remember major concepts of the curriculum in relation to "real" world concerns. Use of the technique can be a powerful way to help all students in inclusive settings, and especially those with learning disabilities, learn concepts. The article first explores some of the issues associated with why students experience difficulty in this area, and then provides suggestions for how to use the RELATE Think Sheet to teach major concepts to students in intermediate, middle, and high school content-area classes.

View RELATE Think Sheet

Helping students develop sophisticated understanding of essential concepts associated with a content-area unit of study can be a considerable challenge in diverse ability classrooms, particularly when some of these students experience significant learning disabilities. Essential concepts are those ideas that are central to understanding an over all lesson or unit. Students who do not understand the important essential concepts of a unit often "miss the point" of the unit and develop superficial or erroneous understandings about the unit topic. Examples of essential concepts include:

Content-area class Unit To-be-learned Concept
World history The Middle Ages feudalism
American history the Civil Rights Movement peaceful resistance
English Charles Dickens author study exploitation
Psychology Factors impacting behavior co-dependency
Science Evolution survival of fittest

The central, most important essential ideas of a unit are often the most complex and challenging to teach, and are in turn the most difficult for students to master, especially those students who are at-risk.

Unfortunately, most students (not just those with learning disabilities), quickly forget new terms once they have taken the test, and many intentionally try to forget the new knowledge in order to "make room for the next round" of to-be-memorized information. Many students view the brain as it were a garbage can -- once its full, it must be emptied before more stuff can be put in it. The quickness in which new information is forgotten by students raises a serious question about practice: If students quickly forget the new information once they have taken the test, why bother requiring them to memorize it in the first place?

There are several common factors that significantly impair students with learning disabilities ability to learn new concepts in a meaningful way. Some of these are directly related to the nature of instruction that students commonly receive, and some are due to the nature of the learning disability itself. A few of these factors are briefly explored below.

What are the factors which impair the learning of concepts?

Teacher factors which impair success

Spray and pray approach to teaching.

Frequently, teachers experience a great deal of pressure to "cover" the content (or finish the book), and as a result, expose students to a great deal of information, but teach very little of it. Metaphorically, students tend to get "sprayed" with a thin layer of information that covers a wide range of subject-matter, and they "pray" that some of it will stick. As a result, most students fail to develop deep knowledge structures about important ideas of the curriculum. In short, we tend to attempt to teach far too much information, thus, the adage "less is more -- depth is more" has considerable merit.

Focus on esoteric trivia and specialized knowledge at the expense of focusing on major concepts and essential ideas of the curriculum. One way to evaluate what teachers think is important for students to learn is to examine the tests they give students. These tests often reflect the expectation that students memorize a great deal of information that is not really worth knowing at the expense of ensuring that students more fully understand the concepts of the curriculum that have great merit for understanding our world and solving real world problems. For example, following a unit about exploration of the new world, students are commonly tested on whether they can name the Spanish explorers and identify locations in the Americas about which the explorers are associated. As a result, students must put all of their energies into memorizing trivia, and learn little about the real significance of the essential ideas associated with this period of history (i.e., how exploitation of weaker populations manifests itself throughout history, how spreading Christian gospel was (and 'is') sometimes used as an excuse for wealth-building, etc.).

The content-teachers' knowledge base about the subject-matter being taught appears to be a major contributor to this problem. Some teachers know so little about the subject matter that they are unable to identify the major concepts themselves, while others seem to know so much about a specific topic that they loose track of what the more fundamental ideas are that students need to know about a specific topic.

Student factors which impair success

Intellectual bulimia approach to learning. Regrettably, many students' approach learning can be best characterized as "intellectual bulimia" -- that is, they attempt to memorize as much "stuff" as they can in order to perform as well on the upcoming test, and then regurgitate it for the test. Like persons who suffer from bulimia who don't want to retain the calories they've ingested, many students intentionally forget the information once the test has been taken. This unfortunate perspective to learning is largely due to the rules of the "school game" that educators have established over the years.

Limited ability to access background knowledge and form relational understandings. Many students with learning disabilities appear to experience difficulty accessing their own background knowledge about subject matter, and as a result, develop poor relational understanding of a to-be-learned concept. In short, many students experience a great deal of difficulty understanding how one idea is related to another idea. Metaphorically, they tend to accumulate knowledge rather than integrate knowledge.

The more one knows about a topic, the easier it is to learn more about it. Many students with learning disabilities are further handicapped from learning new content by their own lack of background knowledge about topics commonly taught in school. This may be due, in part, to their own learning problems that resulted in failure to learn content subjects taught in the earlier grades. Lack of background knowledge may also be due to lack of opportunity to learn -- many students with LD miss basic science and social studies instruction that occurs in the elementary and intermediate grades because they are pulled out for resource room services designed to remediate literacy skills.

Limited elaboration skills. Elaboration of an idea occurs when one transforms an idea in some manner without loosing the essence of the concept's meaning. Examples of elaboration include: paraphrasing a definition, identifying the main idea of a paragraph, creating a visual image of an idea, role-playing or acting out the meaning of an idea, forming predictions, or transforming the information into a series of questions. In part because the basis of many students' learning disabilities stems from inherent language problems, they lack the language-based cognitive skills necessary to engage in effective elaboration. Many students with LD also experience significant problems with short term memory resulting in an inability to retain the new information for a sufficient amount of time for elaboration to occur. Unfortunately, elaboration of a new concept's meaning is one of the most important cognitive strategies students can use to promote understanding and memory of the concept. In sum, students who lack elaboration skills are at greater risk for school failure.

Ineffective learning strategies. One of the most common strategies students use to study the definitions of concepts is the 'look and remember' technique. Here, students typically stare at the term and definition, apparently trying to activate photographic memory they wish they had. Another common study technique is 'rote verbal rehearsal' -- saying it over and over again, usually in the exact language and format in which the definition originally came. Neither of these strategies require much in the way of cognitive activity, and neither are particularly helpful in facilitating comprehension or memory of new concepts.

How does meaningful concept learning look

For students to develop meaningful understanding of key concepts, they do not memorize others' definitions of the concept. Rather, they construct their own understanding based on integrating new information provided them with their own background knowledge and experiences. Learners are constantly re-constructing and refining their understanding of the concept as they encounter more information about it and experiences with it.

Developing deep knowledge structures of a key concept is an iterative, recursive process whereby students gradually move up a continuum of understanding. The bottom of this continuum represents erroneous understanding where the learner has little real understanding of the concept and makes few connections between the idea and other important ideas. Students whom rote memorize definitions are at risk for being at this end of the continuum.

The top of the continuum represents sophisticated understanding of the concept where many connections to other important ideas are formed. The learner is able to understand the idea from multiple perspectives (i.e., can identify its unique critical features, distinguish it from other similar concepts, can recognize variations of it, generate examples and nonexamples of it). Most importantly, the students understand the concept in relation to current, real-world contexts. This means that the concept needs to be comprehended in relation to how it helps one better understand our current world, a current real-life problem, or how to solve a real-world problem.

This means that of all the things teachers can do to promote learning of new concepts, one of the most important is teaching the concepts from the perspective of understanding or solving the problems in their current world. Thus, we read Charles Dickens, in part, to better understand the concept of "exploitation" and how this is a current problem in our society that needs solving; we study about "feudalism," in part, so we gain a greater appreciation of how the U.S. Constitution is designed to prevent this kind of society today; we study about "co-dependency" so that we will better understand the problems some face so that we'll have a better idea of how to help them or understand ourselves better; and we study about survival of the fittest, in part, to understand how random variations in DNA structures interact with frequently changing environment to create new species.

What is the RELATE Think Sheet?

A variety of potentially powerful instructional strategies can be used in inclusive classroom settings to help all students, especially those with learning disabilities, develop more sophisticated understanding of essential concepts. One of these is use of the RELATE Think Sheet.

The RELATE Think Sheet has been designed to enable teachers to explore important concepts with students within the meaningful context of subject-matter instruction. When the Think Sheet is used, students are continuously relating the concept to background knowledge and experience as well as to current, real-world situations. Specifically, the RELATE Think Sheet is used to develop understanding of the key idea by: (a) paraphrasing the main idea of the concept and specifying its critical features, (b) evaluating the concept relative to its value in today's society, (c) reflecting on what current society has done to either promote or inhibit this concept in today's world, (d) identifying an example of the concept from the subject-matter lesson as well as an example from real-life, (e) creating a metaphor or simile for the concept, and (f) identifying specific connections to individual students' background knowledge or experience. The RELATE Think Sheet can be used in its entirety, or portions of it can be used in those instances where instructional time is limited. Naturally, using all of the components of RELATE will more likely ensure a more thorough understanding of the concept.

Sections of a RELATE Think Sheet

The RELATE Think Sheet has six major sections. Each section contains space for recording key information necessary for understanding the meaning of a new concept and making connections to real world contexts. The examples of portions of the RELATE Think Sheet that appear below were taken from a unit about the Civil Rights Movement. A RELATE Think Sheet was constructed for the concept "Gandhi's peaceful resistance" because this idea is central to understanding the basic strategy used to attain civil rights legislation. A completed RELATE Think Sheet is provided further below showing how the various sections come together to form a whole.

SECTION 1: Reveal the key features.

In the first section of the Think Sheet, "Reveal the key features," a mini-web is developed depicting the name of the new concept, its main idea and the critical details about the concept that are important to remember.

Figure 1

Reveal the key features

The concept should reflect a "essential idea" from the unit that is fundamental or central to the entire unit of study. The essential idea is usually some form of an action, practice or process, event, idea, state of being, or period of time.

SECTION 2: Evaluate its value.

Some important concepts are extremely valuable in our current world, and thus, the more these are present in the world today, the better off our society is. "Freedom of speech" is such a concept. Other concepts are also very important to understand, but are destructive ideas that impair society's ability to function or threaten its safety. The less these concepts are present in the world today, the better off our society is. "Racism" might be considered such a concept.

Figure 2

Evaluate its value

The purpose of the "Evaluate its value" portion of the RELATE Think Sheet is to facilitate evaluation of the essential concept relative to how its presence improves or diminishes the quality of our world. Students are asked to consider whether the concept is an idea that should show up in our current world, or whether it is one in which the world is a better place when it does not show up. Depending on how the concept is evaluated by students, the appropriate place on the Think Sheet is circled (whether idea SHOULD or should NOT show up), and then, in the space below these categories, the reasoning regarding why the idea was evaluated as such is noted.

SECTION 3: List examples.

The "List Examples" section provides opportunities to list examples of the concept. In the first space of this section, an example from the classroom lesson is listed. Thus, if the lesson were about the Civil Rights Movement, and one of the major concepts within the lesson was "peaceful resistance," then an example from the lesson of peaceful resistance would be the way Martin Luther King tried to change social policies.

Figure 3

List examples

Most significant concepts can be manifested in the real world in a wide variety of ways, and even concepts from long ago (i.e., "feudalism") appear in today's world in various ways. Thus, in the second 'examples' box, students note variations on the concept that appear in some form in today's world. For example, one of the way's that "peaceful resistance" appears in today's world is when some people refuse to pay income tax as a way to protest wasteful government spending.

Identifying variations of the concept helps the learner to both generalize the concept and recognize its manifestations. It also promotes cognitive flexibility. Students learn to recognize the critical features of the concept, regardless of the words used to describe the concept.

SECTION 4: Analyze actions.

The purpose of the "Analyze Actions" section is to facilitate students' thinking about how our current society has acted in relation to the concept. A desirable concept may be promoted or inhibited by society's actions in various ways, as can an undesirable concept.

Figure 4

Analyze actions

The purpose of the "Analyze Actions" section is to facilitate students' thinking about how our current society has acted in relation to the concept. A desirable concept may be promoted or inhibited by society's actions in various ways, as can an undesirable concept.

Our society may actively promote an idea so that it will become more prevalent. For example, 'Freedom of Speech' is an idea that is actively promoted in this country through classes, the media, in advertisements, news broadcasts, and even in television situation comedies. Unfortunately, sometimes the implementation of desirable concepts can be inhibited in our society as well. For example, while we may value freedom of speech, the manner that public meetings (e.g., city board meeting) are sometimes conducted may minimize the everyday citizen's ability to express concerns in a public forum. Thus, a concept like Freedom of Speech may be simultaneously promoted and inhibited in our world.

SECTION 5: This idea is like...

Recent research has demonstrated that having students reflect about a concept and generate a metaphor or simile for it can be a powerful way to help them formulate more sophisticated understanding of the new idea. Thus, a simile or metaphoric sentence for the concept is noted in the section labeled, "This idea is like...".

Figure 5

This idea is like

For example, a simile sentence for 'peaceful resistance' might be, "This idea is like... taking your time when your parents make you clean up your room because you think it is a waste of time."

SECTION 6: Explain an experience or knowledge connection.

The last section of the RELATE Think Sheet. "Explain an Experience or Knowledge Connection," is designed to help students recognize relationships between the concept and their own background knowledge or experiences. In some instances, students may have had an experience that directly relates to the concept. For example, when studying the concept of "using peaceful resistance to promote social change," the student might realize that the boycott of a restaurant his family recently participated in was a form of peaceful resistance.

Figure 6

Experience or knowledge connection

Information listed here does not have to be related to personal experiences, as some students may not have had an experience related to the concept. Anything from the students' background knowledge or previously learned information from earlier lessons that the concept that is related to can be listed as well.

Figure 7 shows the completed six sections of the RELATE Think Sheet.

Figure 7

The completed think sheet

Wouldn't it be just as good to talk about all the components addressed by the Think Sheet, but not write them down?

There are several reasons why use of the RELATE Think Sheet facilitates learning. These are briefly discussed below:

  • Research shows that one of the most important instructional tools is the use of questioning techniques that require students to think. It also shows, however, that it is very easy to forget to allow sufficient "think time" in the classroom. We often pose a good question, and then one or two of the really quick students will answer it before allowing other students time to process the question and reflect on a good answer. Use of the Think Sheets ensures think-time for all students.
  • Writing is a thinking process. When students formulate their responses to questions, and write them, students tend to think longer and more deeply about the concept.
  • Research shows that we often assume we've done a good job helping students understand complex concepts, but when we probe to find out what they really know about them, even the bright students are often surprisingly confused. Use of the RELATE Think Sheet ensures that students' attention is focused on ways of thinking about the concept that will promote understanding.
  • An important way to use the RELATE Think Sheet is to provide collaborative groups with blank Think Sheets and have them work together to formulate responses for each category. Use of the Think Sheet structures the task so that students tend to be more focused and on-task as they work together.

How does the teacher decide on which concepts to depict on a RELATE Think Sheet?

The RELATE Think Sheet should be reserved for essential ideas associated with a whole unit of study. These are often central to understanding the unit. A clear understanding of these ideas is often the basis of success both in understanding other important ideas in the unit and in future learning about this topic. Figure 8 provides a variety of sample "essential concepts" that might be depicted on a RELATE Think Sheet.

Figure 8. Sample "essential concepts"

  • Action, practice or process
    • exploitation
    • nonviolent social disobedience
    • feudalism
    • chivalry
    • 'Don't ask, don't tell' policy
    • social activism
    • theocracy
    • social security
    • negotiated settlement
    • scientific method
    • environmentalism
    • life cycles
    • recycling
    • erosion
  • State of being
    • pacifist
    • racist
    • co-dependent
    • politically correct
    • demoncratic platform
    • endangered species
  • Noun
    • political action committee (PAC)
    • Declaration of Independence
    • 14th Amendment
    • Ozone layer
    • Toxic waste
  • Idea
    • freedom of speech
    • mutual destruction
    • democratic
    • monotheism
    • population ecology
    • evolution
    • family planning
    • ecology
  • Event
    • presidential debate
    • emancipation proclamation
    • 3 Mile Island Nuclear Crises
    • Raid on Harpers Ferry
    • Bay of Pigs Invasion
    • cloning
    • genetic engineering
    • global warming
  • Period of Time
    • Post-war Baby-boom
    • holocaust
    • Reconstruction
    • Antebellum South
    • Great Depression

How is the RELATE Think Sheet used when teaching?

Teachers will likely be most successful using the RELATE Think Sheet as a way to 'anchor' the meanings of essential concepts whose meanings were first explored within the context of a subject-matter lesson. The put this in perspective, teachers should introduce the meaning of new essential concepts at the beginning of a lesson, and then more thoroughly explore their meanings during the subject-matter lesson, and finally, use RELATE Think Sheet to solidify understanding of those concepts that are really essential that students learn.

While teachers should fit the use of RELATE into their own teaching style, success will most likely be assured if they scaffold the instructional process. This can be accomplished by using RELATE many times in the classroom, while gradually shifting the responsibility for constructing the think sheets from the teacher to students. Many teachers do this by incorporating four phases of instruction (see Figure 9 ).

Figure 9

Four phases of instruction
  • Phase 1 instruction: 'I do it'

    The purpose of the first phase of RELATE instruction is to provide students with a precise model of a well constructed RELATE Think Sheet depicting information related to an essential concept students need to learn. The first time students are introduced to RELATE Think Sheets, teachers usually provide them with one that they have completely constructed ahead of time, and just walk them through it in much the same manner as they might explain the information depicted on a web or other pre-constructed graphic organizer. After explaining the information depicting on the RELATE Think Sheet, teachers usually ask students several questions about what they like about the table and how well it helps them understand the meaning of a new term. Teachers typically do this twice before moving to the next phase, 'We do it.'

  • Phase 2 instruction: 'We do it'

    During 'We do it' instruction, teachers are co-constructing RELATE Think Sheets with students. Although they may have constructed one for a essential concept prior to class as part of their planning process so instruction will go smoothly, they don't show students a completed version. Rather, they first teach the meaning of the new term in the context of a subject-matter lesson, and then provide students with blank copies of a RELATE Think Sheet. Together (students and the teacher), decide what ideas should be noted on the Think Sheet. Thus, the whole class decides on what to note as the "Reveal the key features" for the new term, how the concept should be evaluated relative to today's world, what to list as "Examples," and so forth.

    'We do it' forms of instruction continues throughout the year, thus teachers never really stop co-constructing RELATE Think Sheets with students. As students become more confident and competent at constructing these Think Sheets, teachers' roles are more like quiet "guides-on-the-side."

  • Phase 3 instruction: 'Yall do it'

    Once it becomes evident that most students both understand the purpose of the RELATE Think Sheets and can construct them with little assistance from adults, teachers begin incorporating cooperative learning activities where students work in pairs or small teams to construct RELATE Think Sheets without teacher assistance. While it varies depending of the nature of the class, teachers usually begin incorporating 'Yall do it' activities after the teachers and students have co-constructed between five and ten RELATE Think Sheets. Naturally, the more familiar students are with the meaning of the new concept, the easier it is for them to construct a RELATE Think Sheet, thus it is very important that teachers do a great job teaching the new term's meaning in the context of their subject-matter lesson before they ask students to work together to construct a RELATE Think Sheet. 'Yall do it' activities allows students to have some support, but the nature of the support comes from peers rather than teachers.

  • Phase 4 instruction: 'You do it'

    An important goal is to enable students to be able to independently to construct RELATE Think Sheets. 'You do it' activities are designed to enable students to perform this task without assistance from others. Thus, 'You do it' activities come in the form of assignments that students independently complete. An example would be requiring students to construct RELATE Think Sheets for two important concepts in lieu of requiring them to complete traditional study guides or answer the end-of-chapter textbook questions.

    Assignments that require students to independently construct RELATE Think Sheets only occur, however, after a sufficient amount of scaffolded instruction has previously occurred. A very common mistake is to jump from providing an initial model (I do it) to requiring students to independently do it themselves (You do it) without the intermediate guided practice mediated by teachers and by peers.

How does the teacher accommodate for those students with significant reading and/or writing problems?

There are several ways teachers can accommodate the needs of students who experience significant challenges with reading and/or writing skills. These include:

Providing a completed copy of the RELATE Think Sheet

For those students who lack fine motor skills to write efficiently as well as for those students who experience significant problems composing ideas to write, a completed version of the RELATE Think Sheet can be provided. One option is for the teacher to create a completed RELATE Think Sheet before instruction, and provide the student with a copy of the completed version at the beginning of the lesson. A limitation of this option is that students tend to be less actively involved in the discussion of the relational ideas associated with the Think Sheet when all of the "right" answers have already been recorded for them. Also because students do not have to make active responses, the practice may encourage 'passive' learning.

Another option is to co-construct the RELATE Think Sheet with the class during the lesson, and then afterward, provide the student with a neat copy of the completed Think Sheet.

Blanks for key words

This accommodation involves providing students with partially completed RELATE Think Sheets where blanks have been included for key words to be noted in each section (see Figure 10). As each section of the RELATE Think Sheet is explored, only one or two of the most important words are noted by the student, thus significantly reducing the amount of writing required while at the same time, still requiring the student to make some active responses. A limitation of this accommodation is that the critical thinking involved in constructing responses for each section of the Think Sheet can be at risk (students tend to want the teacher to tell them the 'right' answer to go in the blank rather than engaging in the critical thinking themselves).

Figure 10

Key words

Student verbalizes, peer (or teacher) records ideas on the RELATE Think Sheet

An alternative to the accommodations discussed previously is to arrange for a peer to record the student's responses for each section of the Think Sheet. This accommodation can be provided during "We do it" instruction where the class and the teacher together construct the information to be recorded on the Think Sheet. It is also a natural procedure to use during "Yall do it" collaborative learning activities where peers are working together to complete the Think Sheet.

Student tape records information associated with each section of the RELATE Think Sheet.

This accommodation is best used during the "You do it" phase of instruction where students independently construct RELATE Think Sheets as homework assignments. Likewise, if the teacher uses the RELATE Think Sheet as a form of test in which students are graded, the student's verbal responses can be tape recorded and then listened to later by the teacher. The student's depth of understanding of the concept can be evaluated at that time.

Reading information from the RELATE Think Sheet to the student

This accommodation can be readily incorporated into any of the above accommodations for students with severe reading disabilities.

How does the teacher accommodate for those students with limited thinking skills?

Unfortunately, some teachers assume that students with poor literacy skills have poor thinking skills as well. While research clearly demonstrates that developing literacy skills fosters growth in thinking skills, literacy skills are NOT a prerequisite for thinking skills! There exists no research which indicates that the development of reading and writing skills should proceed the development of thinking skills. Thus, just because a student lacks reading and/or writing skills does not mean that (a) they cannot participate in activities that involve critical thinking, and (b) if they lack critical thinking skills and literacy skills, they cannot develop critical thinking skills in the absence of literacy skills. Simply put, constructing RELATE Think Sheets can be a powerful instructional tool for developing and/or practicing thinking skills for students.

If students seem to experience considerable difficulty with the thinking processes associated with constructing the RELATE Think Sheet, then it is imperative that the instruction be scaffolded in various ways. One of the ways to scaffold the instruction is to employ the "I do it --> We do it --> Yall do it --> You do it" instructional sequence discussed above to gradually enable students to independently construct the Think Sheets.

Another way to scaffold instruction is to modify the RELATE Think Sheet so that students become competent at constructing only one section of the Think Sheet at a time. For example, initially, the teacher might have students only learn to perform the first step of RELATE -- "Reveal the key features" (Figure 11). Students might practice this first step on several concepts over the course of one or more weeks.

Figure 11

First step

Once students are able to create mini-webs showing the gist and critical features of a concept, the next phase involves having students perform both the first step and the second step of RELATE -- "Evaluate its Value" (Figure 12). Thus, as essential concepts from the lesson are encountered, students construct "RE" Think Sheets (RE = the first two steps of RELATE) that depict the mini-web and evaluation of the concept. This phase of scaffolding continues until students have developed competence and confidence performing these steps. Then, the subsequent steps of the RELATE Think Sheet can be gradually added until students are performing all of the RELATE steps.

Figure 12

First and second step

In sum, the RELATE Think Sheet can be used to help students develop in depth understanding of essential concepts associated with a unit of study primarily because it focuses comprehension on how the concept relates to students' current real-world situations. The RELATE Think Sheet is best used after the meaning of an essential concept has been explored in the context of a subject-matter lesson. The Think Sheet can be constructed by the teacher and presented to students as the meaning of a concept is explored, it can be co-constructed by the class and teacher, or co-constructed by peers. Eventually, the RELATE Think Sheet can become a powerful substitute for traditional homework assignments as students use them independently.

For a copy of these instructional materials, contact:

Masterminds, LLC
P.O. Box 20433
Tuscaloosa, AL 35402-0433
e-mail address: Mastrmnds@aol.com

Note: This article was adapted from Making Real-World Connections published by Masterminds, LLC. This book provides a variety of specific instructional strategies for teaching concepts and multiple examples of how they have been used in intermediate, middle school, and high school classes. The appendix contains black-line masters of various graphic organizers specifically designed to enable students to understand concepts in relation to real-world concerns.

(2002)