Teaching Students with LD and ADHD

basic information about learning disabilities

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Joined: Mar 14, 2009
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Posted Mar 14, 2009 at 5:51:21 AM
Subject: basic information about learning disabilities

What is a Learning Disability according to IDEA 2004?

a. (GENERAL) The term means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia.
b. (DISORDERS NOR INCLUDED) the term does not include learning problem, that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

Causes-Etiology of LD

Despite intense research activity over the years, pinpointing the precise cause or causes of learning disabilities has remained an elusive goal. however, research has suggested various possible causes for specific learning disabilities.

- Genetics
- Tobacco, Alcohol, and other Drug use during pregnancy
- Complications during pregnancy
- Environmental Toxins
- Poor Nutrition
- Maturational Delay

Characteristics of people diagnosed with LD (no one sign shows a person has a learning disability. however, "unexpected underachievement" is the defining characteristic of learning disabilities. experts look for a noticeable difference between how well does a child do in school, and how well he or she could do, given his or her intelligence or ability)

cognitive difficulties
- poor selective attention (Zera & Lucian)
- inattention or difficulty focusing on the task
- problems with memory-either short term or long term or both(Swanson, 2000)
- perceptual problems (Lerner, 2005; Smith, 1998)
academic difficulties
- difficulty with oral fluency (Mercer, Campbell, Miller, Mercer & Lane, 2000)
- many mistakes made when reading aloud, and repeating and pausing often
- very messy handwriting or holding a pencil awkwardly
- difficulty processing information
- Learning language late and having a limited vocabulary
- Trouble remembering the sounds that letters make or hearing slight differences between words
- difficulties in writing language (Roth, 2000; Wong, 2000)
- mispronouncing words or using a wrong word that sounds similar
- trouble organizing what he or she wants to say or unable to think of the word he or she needs for writing or conversation
- difficultires in reading (Bell, McCallum, & Cox, 2003)
- difficulties in math (Witzel, Smith, & Brownell, 2001; Mazzocco, 2001)
- Trouble learning the alphabet, rhyming words, or connecting letters to their sounds
- confusing math symbols and misreading numbers
- unable to retell a story in order
not knowing where to begin a task or how to go on from there
Social and Emotional difficulties
- deficits in social skills (Kavale & Forness, 1996)
- Rejection by peers and classmates (Pavri & Monda-Amaya, 2001)
- difficulties in making and keeping friends (Tur-Kaspa, Weisel, & Segev, 1998)
- poor social skills (Gresham, Sugai, & Horner, 2001)
- not following the social rules of conversation, such as taking turns, and may stand too close to the listener

in addition, difficulties in communicating with others can lead to inappropriate behavior. for example, the child may have trouble understanding jokes, comic strips, and sarcasm or; trouble following directions

these information are all based on the book "The Educator's Diagnostic Manual of Disabilities and Disorders". i posted these info for general knowledge of others. as a 2nd year college student majoring in Special Education, I wold like to share to others what we have learned. i will post more information about LD and ADHD some othe time. hope you will learn something from my posts. =)"

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Joined Nov 21, 2004
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Posted:Mar 20, 2009 8:06:48 AM

Diagnosis is an essential first step towards solving any problem.

The problem seems to be one of an underdeveloped left brain. This makes remembering details or even understanding details difficult.

Wholebrain Learning (also known as accelerated learning) uses both sides of the brain together.

All dyslexics and most slow learners are right brain dominant therefore Wholebrain Techniques play to their strengths while helping to develop their left hemisphere.

The following link takes you to an easy to read article on Intelligence which lets us understand a bit more about the process:


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