Hi there, I am a substitute teacher from NY (about to sub for my 5th year). I have done some long term subbing positions in special ed rooms. Most recently I was in a behavior room with a girl in 8th that had oppositional defiant disorder. One thing that worked for her were daily point sheets. We tallied points based on her behavior through out the day and at the end of the week added them up. If she had a certain average she could use the amount she earned towards free time. She liked going on walks outside on the track or shooting the basketball in the auxiliary gym (small second gym that goes unused most days). Outside of points the teacher's assistant also gave out tokens (almost like a poker chip) for positive interactions/behaviors/class participation. You could hold on to the chips or cash them in for school supplies or snacks. As her one on one aide I developed my own techniques that seemed to work with her as well. You would be surprised how much her behavior changed when we made up goals involving pieces of gum as rewards. I think once teachers and aides are able to work with the student to find something they really like (another student loved to draw and worked towards study hall time being spent in the art room), it's easier on everyone. The students understands that in order to achieve their goals they have to work towards it. Seeing the daily point sheets (they go home and must be signed by parents and turned back in by the end of each week), is a constant reminder of working towards a goal. The tokens (poker chips) were another physical reminder that they were on the right track. This seemed to work for most kids, especially knowing their parents would see the point sheets on a daily basis. I also would make it a point to write a few sentences at the bottom of her sheet on the positive behaviors she displayed. I think focusing on how well they do helps them to focus on that more so than the negative behaviors they may have displayed. Everyone is different but I hope this gives you some ideas!