Nonverbal Learning Disorders: What To Look For
By: Pamela Tanguay (1998)
As you review the characteristics outlined within this article, please keep in mind that many of the characteristics listed under one heading may, and often do, impact the individual in many areas of their lives. The hallmark of those diagnosed with NLD appears to be their fear, and sometimes terror, of any novel situation.
- Generally the individual's WISC VIQ is higher than their PIQ, but not in all cases - particularly during adolescence.
- There is an excellent vocabulary and more than typical verbal expression, starting at a young age.
- Exceptional rote memory skills are quite common, and may mask the disability in early education.
- There is excellent attention to detail, but the individual will likely miss the big picture.
- The individual may be an early reader, OR may have early reading difficulties. However, in either case, there is generally difficulty with reading comprehension beginning in the upper elementary grades, especially for novel material.
- Difficulties in math are common, especially in the areas of computation, word problems, and abstract applications.
- Concept formation and abstract reasoning may be significantly impaired.
- There is likely to be great difficulty generalizing information - applying learned information to new situations.
- Generally their strongest learning medium is simple/rote auditory - if they hear it, they will remember it.
- Physical awkwardness is quite common - they appear to lack coordination. As a youngster, the individual does better in individual rather than team sports.
- There is difficulty learning to ride a bicycle, catch and/or kick a ball, hop and/or skip.
- Physical difficulties may be more pronounced on the left side of body.
- Fine motor skills may be impaired - handwriting may be poor and/or laborious.
- Significant problems with spatial perception are quite common.
- These individuals are very concrete and interpret information quite literally.
- Normally, they do not process or benefit from nonverbal communication - body language, facial expressions, tone of voice may be lost on them.
- They are unable to intuit or read between the lines (impacting both conversation and reading comprehension).
- Generally, these individuals have poor social skills. They will most likely have trouble making and/or keeping friends.
- In all likelihood, they will have tremendous difficulty adjusting to new situations, or changes to their routine.
- These individuals generally appear to lack common sense, or "street smarts" - they can be incredibly naïve.
- Anxiety and/or depression are very common, especially during adolescence. This problem may be quite severe.
- Often these individuals suffer from low self-esteem.
- It is quite common for them to be withdrawn, and they may actually become agoraphobic.
- There is a higher than normal incidence of suicide within the NLD population.
Click the "References" link above to hide these references.
Allen, Kathy, Star Shaped Pegs, Square Holes, Unicycle Press, 1076 Lynn St., Livermore, CA 94550.
Antoniadis, Maria, PhD, & McCarthy, Kathryn, PhD, Social Skills Training for Nonverbal Communication, Nonverbal Learning Disorders Symposium, Concord, California, April 1996.
Bishop, D. V. M. (1989), Autism, Asperger's syndrome and semantic-pragmatic disorder: Where are the boundaries?, British Journal of Disorders of Communications, 24, 107-121.
Bledsoe, Peg, MA, OTR, FAOTA, The Hand, Handwriting, and the Child with Nonverbal Learning Disorders, Nonverbal Learning Disorders Symposium, Concord, California, April 1996.
Brumback, R. A., Harper, C. R., & Weinberg, W. A. (1996), Nonverbal learning disabilities, Asperger's syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder -- should we care? Journal of Child Neurology, 11 (6), 427-429.
Clarke, Sarah, & Antoniadis, Maria, PhD., Advocating for the Individual with Nonverbal Learning Disorders, Nonverbal Learning Disorders Symposium, Concord, California, April 1996.
Duke, Marshall P., Nowicki, Jr., Stephen, & Martin, Elisabeth A. (1996), Teaching Your Child the Language of Social Success, GA: Peachtree Publishers, GA
Foss, J. M. (1991), Nonverbal learning disabilities and remedial interventions, J.M.Foss, Annals of Dyslexia, 41, 128-140.
Gross-Tsur, V., Shalev, R. S., Manor, N., & Amir, N. (1995), Developmental right-hemisphere syndrome: Clinical spectrum of the nonverbal learning disability, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (2), 80-86.
Hallowell, Edward (1996), When You Worry About the Child You Love: Emotional and Learning Problems in Children, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Klin, A., Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. W., Cicchetti, D. V., & Rourke, B. P. (1995), Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36 (7), 1127-1140.
Koplewicz, Harold S. (1996), It's Nobody's Fault, NY: Times Books division of Random House.
Kosters, Diane, PhD, Assessing and Diagnosing the Individual with Nonverbal Learning Disorders, Nonverbal Learning Disorders Symposium, Concord, California, April 1996.
Nowicki, Stephen & Duke, Marshall (1992), Helping the Child Who Doesn't Fit In, GA: Peachtree Publishers.
Osman, Betty B. (1982), No One to Play With: The Social Side of Learning Disabilities, NY: Random House.
Petrauskas, Ray, Making Sense of Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities, Annual Conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, 1995.
Rourke, Byron P. (1989), Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: The Syndrome and the Model, NY: The Guilford Press.
Rourke, Byron P. (1993), Treatment Programme for the Child with NLD, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4
Rourke, Byron P. (Ed.), (1995), Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Neurodevelopmental Manifestations, NY: The Guilford Press.
Stewart, Kathryn, PhD, Psychological Interventions for the Child with Nonverbal Learning Disorders, Learning Disorders Symposium, Concord, California, April 1996.
Thompson, Sue, MA, CET (1997), The Source for Nonverbal Learning Disorders CA: LinguiSystems Inc
Thompson, Sue, MA, CET (1997), Nonverbal Learning disorders. Retrieved October 4, 2000, from the World Wide Web: http://www.nldontheweb.org/thompson-1.htm
Thompson, Sue, MA, CET, & Paton, Judith, MA, Educational Interventions for the Child with Nonverbal Learning Disorders, Nonverbal Learning Disorders Symposium, Concord, California, April 1996.
Westhead, Eleanor, Blalock, Jane, & Gregg, Kay Noel, The Nonverbal Disabilities: Dense, Dyslogic, Self-Defeating, International Conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of America, 1990.
Reprinted with permission from Pamela B. Tanguay