Using Reference Tools
Creating routines for the classroom, such as posting a class agenda in the same place every day, and helping students develop awareness of time management will help them be better able to structure their time and work through each task.
Reference tools include schedules for the day, posted agendas for each class, standard classroom policies, and even checklists for completing various components of an assignment.
Schedules and agendas allow students to know how much time they have for a task and what activities they might be doing during a class. These tools allow them to be prepared for each part, better transition between tasks, and estimate how much time they might have to complete their work.
In addition to general behavior, classroom policies include concrete requirements, such as bringing a notebook and pencil to class each day, and expectations for assignments.
- Have students include their name, date, and the assignment at the top of all work.
- Be clear about expectations regarding when assignments are due and what the consequences for late assignments are.
- Follow the same routine when beginning or transitioning between tasks, so that students know what materials they need and what they need to do to start each activity.
Checklists can be a wonderful way to break down larger tasks into manageable pieces. For example, having a checklist with the components of a project will help students plan and track their progress as they do research, organize their ideas, write a draft, proofread, make sure they included all required components, and finalize their project.
Cueing for Activation
Providing cues for students is one strategy that empowers them to activate for learning.
Provide Time Cues
Tell students how much time they have for a task (and write it on the board), then cue students to begin work. Instead of cueing them only at the end of the time, provide several cues throughout the task time. For a 10-minute task, for example, cue them when two minutes have passed. This helps the late starters get on track while they still have enough time to complete the task. Also cue students when they’ve reached the halfway point, and when there are 2 minutes left. When used consistently, time cues help all students gain a sense of the passage of time and how to pace themselves to complete a task.
Provide Oral and Visual Cues
Oral and visual cues can contribute to success for students who struggle to initiate a task, sustain their effort on a task, or transition to a new task. Say a student’s name before providing directions, for example. Pointing to a class agenda, a checklist, or a place in the book can also focus a student’s attention and effort on what they should do. These brief exchanges can make the difference between wasted time and active participation.
Additional Landmark Teaching Strategy
- Time Management Bingo: This activity helps students better manage their time by becoming more aware of how much time a task might require.
Landmark Teaching Principle™ #1: Provide Opportunities for Success
The first Landmark Teaching Principle™ holds at its core the premise that increased confidence leads to noticeable gains in student achievement. If a teacher can meet students on their individual levels of understanding, allowing them to experience success, then they will be more ready and willing to take on greater and greater challenges. In order for students to feel successful in the classroom, consistency of routine, as well as reference points to remember important information that might not be easily stored in working memory, can be powerful tools for fostering independence. When students know what is expected, or at least have a process for figuring out this information, they will more quickly activate to learn and be ready for new, more difficult skills and content.
For the full text of the Landmark Teaching Principles™, including “Provide Opportunities for Success,” click here.